Thursday, February 10, 2005

ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN HAWAII

ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN HAWAII

Processes, Feedstocks, and Current Economic Feasibility of Fuel Grade Ethanol Production in Hawaii

Prepared for State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism

July, 1994

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Table of
Contents

Executive
Summary

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ABOUT THIS REPORT
NOTICE
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND
...A. WHY ETHANOL FOR HAWAII?
...B. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
...C. RENEWED INTEREST
...D. SCOPE OF THIS STUDY
...E. APPROACH

II. BIOMASS DESCRIBED
...A. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHOICE OF MATERIALS ("FEEDSTOCKS")
...B. "LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS" AND SYSTEM ECONOMICS
...C. CHEMISTRY - THE SUGAR CONTENT OF MATERIALS
...D. CHEMISTRY - CONVERSION OF SUGARS TO ETHANOL
.........(cellulose hydrolysis - glucose fermentation - xylose fermentation)

III. AVAILABILITY AND COSTS OF BIOMASS MATERIALS
...A. SELECTION OF FEEDSTOCKS FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS
...B. AGRICULTURAL CROPS
........1. Sugarcane (traditional varieties)
........2. Sugarcane (other varieties; "energy cane")
........3. Napier grass
........4. Sweet sorghum
........5. Eucalyptus
........6. Leucaena
........7. A word of caution regarding comparisons of crop yields
...C. WASTES-MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE, ORGANIC WASTE, AND NEWSPAPER
...D. POTENTIAL GALLONS OF ETHANOL PER TON OF BIOMASS
...E. POTENTIAL GALLONS OF ETHANOL PER ACRE
...F. PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC SCREENING

IV. ETHANOL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
...A. STEPS IN THE ETHANOL PRODUCTION PROCESS
...B. PROCESS OPTIONS
...C. APPROACH TO EVALUATION OF SYSTEMS
...D. ASSUMPTIONS USED IN EVALUATIONS
...E. TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
........1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation
........2. Concentrated acid hydrolysis, neutralization and fermentation
........3. Ammonia disruption, hydrolysis and fermentation
........4. Steam disruption, hydrolysis and fermentation
........5. Acid disruption and transgenic microorganism fermentation
........6. Concentrated acid hydrolysis, acid recycle and fermentation
........7. Acidified acetone extraction, hydrolysis and fermentation
........8. Traditional fermentation of sugars to ethanol
...F. SUMMARY OF TECHNOLOGY COMPARISONS
...G. CONCLUSIONS REGARDING ETHANOL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

V. MARKETS AND VALUES FOR ETHANOL AND CO-PRODUCTS
...A. MARKETS FOR ETHANOL FUEL
........1. As a blending agent (10%) with gasoline
........2. As a blending agent (10%) in unleaded mid-grade and premium gasoline
........3. For use in light-duty flexible-fueled vehicles
........4. For use in buses
........5. As a feedstock in the production of ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether)
........6. For use in electricity generation
........7. Summary of potential markets for fuel ethanol
...B. CO-PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS
........1. Protein
........2. Lignin
........3. Furfural
........4. Carbon dioxide
........5. Algae
........6. Stillage
........7. Methane
........8. Electricity

VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
...A. SUMMARY
........1. Biomass sources
........2. Technologies for ethanol production
........3. Markets and values for ethanol
...B. CONCLUSIONS
........1. Feasibility of producing ethanol in Hawaii
........2. The most promising feedstocks
........3. The most promising technologies for ethanol production
...C. RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

LIST OF SPREADSHEET CONTENTS

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